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Transitioning: Disabilities and the Minimum Wage

7 Jun

My yearly post comes courtesy of some interesting discussions with my varied Facebook friends about economic policies and specifically about the minimum wage.  Having two teenage sons has definitely helped shed some light on the state of things as far as jobs and the economy as well as my own background, going back to the days on the farm.  I can try to talk about the economics of the minimum wage to my friends, but there might be more power in simply sharing a more personal (and maybe simple) example.

Two years ago, I wrote a bit about efforts to get my oldest involved in beekeeping.  It’s still a good read, and reveals the plight of many parents and individuals with disabilities.  Namely as we approach next year with him as a senior, we are still grappling about how we can arrange things where he might be able to take care of himself or at least be much more independent.  And the fact that there is very little out there for individuals with disabilities.  This is an update on that post plus a little lesson in practical economics.

My oldest still has no problem mowing the lawn and still looks forward to doing and making a little money.  He and his younger brother both mow now, switching off between my lawn and my neighbor’s lawn.  I pay $15 for my lawn, provided they pay for the gas or $10 if I have to pay for it.  My neighbor pays them $20 for a slightly smaller lawn.  Right away, you can see where they might be more likely to want to mow HER lawn than mine.  More money for less work.  But it’s with my lawn mower and mostly my gas.  I told them if they saved and bought their own mower, I’d gladly pay $20 but they haven’t been too keen on that.  They haven’t quite grasped the concept of capital investments, yet.

When my youngest (more neurotypical) son mows, he can do either lawn in less than 90 minutes, so he is making about minimum wage or maybe a little better.  However, when my oldest mows the lawn he will typically take 4-5 hours!  And he uses a lot more gas.  If I was running a lawn mowing business, you could see what the problem would be if I had to pay minimum wage.  One of my employees would be making me a little money while the other one would be costing me!  It has little to do with the quality of work as much as simple productivity.

And don’t get me started on government required licensing.

My oldest is not as interested in keeping bees as I am.  He’s just not into the bees.  He hasn’t been stung as far as I know, so it’s not that.  However, he is happy to participate in other aspects of the business that don’t necessarily involve wearing a bee suit.  When it comes to extracting honey, he enthusiastically turns the crank on the extractor and watches the frames spin around.  And recently he was happy to nail together and paint some hive boxes that I had ordered.   The price difference between an unassembled box and one that is assembled and painted is about $5 per box, so I offered to split the difference with him @ $2 per box, which he was happy to do.  In fact he was happier with this than mowing the lawn.  And he did a fairly decent job, not using too many  extra nails.  I wasn’t too concerned about the quality of the paint job as the bees wouldn’t care as long as he didn’t get any on the inside.

My patio is over run with bee equipment! One of the hives can be seen in the background

This was a job I probably could have done myself in an hour or so, but it’s a bit tedious so I was happy to let him have at it.  It took him probably 6 hours over 2 days.   But he was able to do this job independently and I wasn’t in a huge hurry as the bees are still filling out their top boxes.  But if he would have been working for someone else who had to pay him minimum wage, the cost would have exceeded the cost of simply ordering them already painted and assembled.  And we’re talking a $7.25 minimum wage.  There’s serious national discussion about raising the minimum to $15 per hour which would drop him from almost any serious contention for competitive  job opportunities even if he acquired enough skill to double his productivity!

There actually is a small provision that allows people with disabilities to be employed below the minimum wage under the Fair Labor Standard Act (FLSA) of 1938   The preceding link is actually an interesting read as it also covers exemptions relating to youth emplyment and agricultural employment as well as casual babysitting.

The employment numbers for persons with disabilities are bleak, at best, according to Bureau of Labor Statistics:

In 2015, 17.5 percent of persons with a disability were employed, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. In contrast, the employment-population ratio for those without a disability was 65.0 percent.

Here’s and interactive chart that breaks it down a bit.


No serious discussion of employment for individuals with disabilities and this special provision from the minimum wage would be complete without discussing its poster-child, Goodwill Industries.  In 2013, this organization came under fire because it was reported that they were paying individuals as low as $.22 per hour while Goodwill International CEO Jim Gibbons made $729,000 in salary and deferred compensation.   To many people who were making below minimum wage, that news came as a slap in the face and circulated a petition in order to pressure Goodwill to pay its workers minimum wage.

Goodwill issued their response to this petition where they outline why this provision is important as well as giving recommendations for insuring better compliance with those provisions.  You can also read a shorter but perhaps more poignant response here.    Which delves deeper into the wheelhouse where I presently work– with individuals with multiple severe disabilities.  As I began this post saying, the opportunities for these families are few and far between.   One of the complaints from some of those who opined the loudest in favor of doing away with the minimum wage exemption was that they felt trapped within the Goodwill system because there was no other place to go.  But if Goodwill was eliminated– then what?

The solution would seem to be more competition and oddly enough the publicity surrounding how much the CEO’s and executives were making might actually help if the publicity was less toxic and more helpful.  If another company moved into the area, they might be able to offer more services or higher wages and a six figure salary might be enough incentive to bring a savvy entrepreneur into the market.   But not if they are going to be vilified for making good money for doing good work.

Goodwill is a voluntary organization in all respects.  This means individuals and families can choose whether or not this is the right choice for them, and if they find another and more lucrative option, they are certainly encouraged to take advantage of those opportunities.  But with over 80% of people with disabilities who have ZERO employment, we need to be looking at ways to expand those opportunities instead of regulating those very few opportunities out of existence.

Finally here’s a short primer on how the minimum wage does or does not hurt workers:



Preparing for Graduation

26 May

It’s that time of year, again.  It’s graduation time for the high school seniors.  This year, I have one student who is walking across the stage.  You might recall a student who used to inhabit this blog who went by the name of Taz.  Like the cartoon character of that name, he rarely simply walks anywhere.  He is like a tornado the way he moves, which has the potential to be a bit unnerving to people looking for an occasion that is more solemn than cartoonish.  That would be the administrators who are only now getting nervous.  I was nervous from the minute I knew his mother wanted him to walk this year.  So we’re walking the tight rope between allowing him to have his moment on the stage while keeping him from being the proverbial twister in the trailer park.

But he’ll be back.  Unlike his peers, he will be returning for post-graduate studies for 2 more years (he’s already 20).  I wish I could say that we had much more to offer hime than custodial care.  I really wish that was the case.  But NCLB has turned us into an academic factory.  The product is a finished assessment and the raw materials are academic standards, technology and creativity.   Since the general curriculum is aimed at college, that’s where we have to aim, with considerable leeway, of course.  But school resources have been totally diverted from vocational instruction to college prep.

Will any of my students go to college?  with IQ’s in the single digits…what do you think?  Are they going to use the algebra, geography and literature I’ve spent all these years teaching them?  Remember, it’s the law.  So what happens to my students when they graduate?  Where do they go?

I recently stumbled into Lance Strate’s Blog, and he writes a post that addresses this a lot better than I could ever do it.  Go over there and read it.

The exit door from my program leads to only two paths.  One, is a funeral.  I’ve done that one too many times.  The other is a waiting list, which all of my graduates end up on, if they don’t take the first path first.  And with funding drying up all over, the waiting lists are going to just get longer and longer.

How We’ll Become Even more Endangered

16 Jan

Here is a copy of a press release from Govenor Sonny Perdue’s office:

Governor Perdue Announces Proposals to Transform Education and Improve Economic Environment

Tuesday January 13th, 2009

ATLANTA– Governor Sonny Perdue discussed education, economic environment and transportation this morning at the Eggs & Issues Breakfast hosted by the Georgia Chamber of Commerce at the Georgia World Congress Center.

“During these times we continue to focus on government’s core mission,” said Governor Perdue. “Now more than ever we must make sure that we get out of government what we put into it.”

At the breakfast, the Governor announced three proposals to match the state’s educational spending with its desired outcome. The first proposal recognizes the important role of leadership at the school level. Under the proposal, high school principals who demonstrate improvement in graduation rate, SAT scores, and End of Course Tests compared to their school’s most recent 3-year average will be eligible for a $10,000 performance bonus. Principals could also qualify by leading a school that is in the top 5 percent of high schools in the state in these three areas.

The second proposal recognizes the role that quality teachers play in producing positive educational outcomes. The proposal for teachers is based on the Master Teacher program and would allow exceptional teachers who are willing to serve as instructional leaders and mentors in their schools to be eligible to receive pay increases of ten to fifteen percent.

In response to a shortage of math and science teachers and increased demand in these content areas, the Governor proposed taking a business-like approach to recruiting these teachers. The Governor’s proposal, based on recommendations by the Alliance of Education Agency Head’s Math and Science Task Force, would start new fully-certified math and science teachers at the same salary as a fifth year teacher. Teachers in these fields with less than five years experience would also be brought up to the fifth year pay level. In an effort to encourage and reward elementary teachers who increase their competency in math and science, the Governor’s proposal will also provide a $1,000 annual bonus to elementary teachers who hold a math or science endorsement. The three proposals all call for the incentives to be available beginning in 2010-11 school year, which would be the Fiscal Year 2011 state budget.

“It has long been one of the chief fallacies of government to focus on inputs, usually on how much you’re spending, instead of outputs – on performance and achievement,” said Governor Perdue.

The Governor also proposed school board legislation to ensure that every student has the benefit of responsible leadership at the school system level. The legislation standardizes board ethics policies and board training, clarifies law delineating the roles and responsibilities of superintendents and board members, creates minimum qualifications for board candidates, and gives the state the ability to find responsible citizens to serve on school boards when existing members fail to serve the interests of their students.

“Never again, do I intend for the state to be handcuffed by our current law and powerless to help students who are being failed by the adults in their community,” the Governor said.

Make a note of the part in bold above. There is a big elephant in the room. Can you spot it?

Our beloved governor is referring to the critical teacher shortages in certain subject areas (math and science), promising bonuses for those who choose to move into or get certified in those areas. But he left one out. He always leaves this one area out in his pet incentive programs. In his Master Teacher Program (designed to be an alternative to National Board Certification)…he left it out.

Just where does special education fit into all of this? Special education has been identified federally as one of those critical shortage areas and it is equally true in the state of Georgia as it is for the nation. The failure to mention or address this area is either blatant ignorance, flagrant incompetence out outright discrimination on the part of him and his educational advisors. In fact, he has introduced a measure that promises to make the shortage of special education teachers worse!

I just recently received an email from another special education teacher who was asking about the GACE because she was looking to migrate away from special education and into science. And this was composed and sent before our governor announced his plans to transform the education and fix the economy through incentives for math and science teachers. And I passed my GACE science last last year, so am in a good spot to migrate if I choose. By failing to address the special education teacher shortage, Gov. Perdue is promising to turn the disturbing migration of special education teachers out of the field into even more of a crisis. As it is, people are being nabbed off the street in order to fill empty positions. Now there is even more of an incentive for special education teachers to move out of their specialty area and create more openings that will go unfilled and result in more of the most disadvantaged students being underserved.

A visit to Georgia’s teacher recruitment website ( shows where the shortage areas are. Yes, there are quite a few math and science openings. But special education dominates the vacancy list. Throw in speech language pathology, ESOL and a few of the other categories and special education as a field totally rules the teacher vacancy positions in the state of Georgia. Special education has ruled the vacancy list for the last 20 years. It will probably rule for the next 20 years, thanks to this governor and his incentive dis-incentive.

I suppose someone might try to make the case that special education does not add economic value like math and science. To them, I would point out that special education students, as a group, represent the subgroup most likely to drag a school into “Needs Improvement” status. The unemployment rate of this subgroup is well over 50%. And current educational policy seems absolutely bent on marginalizing them (and their teachers) even more. So in a sense, having a large cadre of highly paid engineers is going to be necessary in order to bear the economic and social costs of carrying people who the current educational system chooses to leave behind.

C’mon, Governor! Are you addressing teacher shortages or not?

This just further illustrates and underscores the pervasive culture of discrimination that seems to always be perpetrated against individuals with disabilities and those who serve them.

Just to add one more bit of news along these lines, the waiting lists for those waiting for various medical or transition services has been totally frozen since the economic downturn. One of my former students who aged out last year is still on the waiting list. Which means he is pretty much just sitting around at home. The money should have been in place the second he graduated since he had been on the list since middle school. But once again, individuals with disabilities are shunted aside in favor of other priorities. They are at the bottom of the list, even in the best of economic times, and in today’s climate they are totally abandoned.

What kind of economic recovery is it when it is borne by those who are least able to carry the rest of us? While we bail out auto executives we keep kids on a waiting list for needed services. Not a very noble picture is it?

IEP Process: Summary of Performance

12 May

My IEP series has yet to include this as this is my very first crack at this abomination. And as a teacher, it is truly an abomination, compared to the good ‘ole days when all you had to do at the very last meeting was look at goal mastery, write some minutes, pat the child on the head and say “C-YA!” In those days, dismissing a child from school and special education was as easy as gravity.

Not so, anymore. From a 1 page breezy narrative, it is now a 5 page millstone.  You can look at it/download it here.  Ours looks slightly different, but it is just as painful.

The reauthorization of 2004 requires this document in order to facilitate the child’s post-secondary transition and provide some sort of seamlessness with vocational rehab agencies. I have no idea if this is true or not for most students, but I don’t see the usefulness for any of my students. Let’s go through this thing together, shall we? I’m filling this out for the student I have identified in past entries as Spaz who is leaving after over 20 years in the system. I’ve had him for 7 of those years, so for about a third of his life. This should be easy, given our history, right?

Checking off assessments used…

This looks easy enough…check, check, check…

And provide copies of the assessment reports.

Crap. The boy has a folder that takes up an entire file drawer. A lot of the medical stuff is buried very deeply. This is going to be painful, made even moreso by the fact that the copier is clear across the school. Perhaps the Central Eligibility Report will suffice for all of this. Yeah, let them look up all the stuff!

Students desired postsecondary goals. This should take into consideration education, employment and community access.

Spaz is pretty darn sick of school and seems tired of everything else for that matter. He’s tired of going into the community, which he used to love more than anything else. But we need to put something down so I can say that he will pursue a placement in a day-hab/sheltered workshop setting. Also, because of the severity of his disability, paid employment is not a goal.

That last statement is a tough one, but it’s the truth. Even as a greeter at Wal-Mart, his spitting on people is not exactly going to earn him a big paycheck. He bites any materials he works with, and his hands are all in his mouth. At least he’s not biting people, and that’s progress.

Spaz will live with his family as long as possible but group home, respite and other living alternatives will be pursued. And I think those alternatives will be pursued diligently as his mother has endured a lot of hardship over the years with Spaz. I daresay, more hardship than most because Spaz has some extensive needs and some extreme behaviors which will try and test the patience of the best of people at their best. She’s had to endure being with him, who has only needed 10 hours of sleep per week, and his waking hours seem to be spent bent on destruction. He breaks things, chews on things, picks at things and generally raises havoc. Curtains, window blinds, windows, walls, electrical outlets, appliances, fixtures…nothing is immune once he fixes upon it without constant supervision. And try keeping your temper on less than 2 hours of sleep every single night.

Moving on…

Academic area: Reading

Well, if I had to pick his brightest spot, this might be it. Spaz can read a few sight words (Walk, don’t walk, go, in, out) but he’s not reading extensively beyond the pre-k level. His functioning according to an adaptive behavior questionnaire is less than a 2 year-old level. He might read at a 3 or 4 year-old level. They want accommodations and assistive technology, but there’s not a lot to offer as far as his reading.


He can almost count to 15, and does so failry clearly with his own voice. Otherwise he uses an AAC device with supervision. Again, he is functioning at a 3-4 year-old level, tops.

Written Expression

Spaz has been working on writing his name for several years and can almost write “Spaz” legibly, but he does bite the pencil, pen and/or paper that he is writing on/with. Which means that writing is not very functional at all for him as he will destroy/eat whatever he is writing on/with. This includes a computer mouse or keyboard.

Learning Skills (Class participation, Note taking, Keyboarding, Organization, Test taking, Study skills)

He participated in class using his AAC device, answering orally or by pointing to people and pictures.

In every one of these areas, they want to no the accommodations, the date and an accommodations rationale. The rationale is the same every time for Spaz: He has a severe intellectual disability and his skills are negligible to nonexistent! That’s the assessment report’s words, not mine. But they have the virtue of being true. And depressing.

Social Skills and Behavior

This area is even more depressing, as he has a laundry list of all sorts of behaviors that have came, went, and returned again over the years. Why on earth am I required to fill this out? How can a parent read this, if it is a truly honest account, and NOT be reduced to tears?


Independent Living

Environmental Access

Self Determination/Self Advocacy Skills


Medical/Family Concerns

On and on and on and on this thing goes! And that is only page 3. The accommodation for my student is basically the same: 1:1 adult assistance pretty much every time, and the rationale is that Spaz has a severe intellectual disability, and is functioning at less than a 2 year-old level. What else do you want me to say?

And then I get to summarize all of this to recommend postsecondary outcomes, which for him will require 1:1 supervision and support at all times. As a teacher, this is totally demoralizing. Yeah, I know he’s got a severe disability, but the outcome of 7 years of instruction should have come to more than this. No wonder most teachers quit before they see the results of all their work. It’s too depressing to contemplate.

The next section is even more depressing as if that were possible. It’s the student perspective. I’m somehow supposed to interview Spaz and ask him:

How does your disability affect your schoolwork and school activities? (Think about grades, relationships, assignments, tests, communication, extra-curricular activities.):

In the past, what supports have been tried by teachers to assist you in being successful in school?:

Which of these accommodations and supports worked best for you? Why did they work?:

D. What strengths should others know about you as you begin college or work?:

E.What has been most difficult for you in school?

As if Spaz is going to answer any of these!

What a load of rubbish.

And then we’re supposed to provide a list of contact information for service providers that parents may contact. And I know for a fact that our county has precious few, if any of these numbers. In fact, they had training material for filling out the forms and they used people at the board office as examples for each of those contacts for High School Team, Health and Family Services, Employment Agency, Community Agency, Institute of Higher Education as well as other agencies. I’ll be writing them to see if I can use their info! As it is, I know of no such database in the county, much less the county office of such agencies.  It’s as if they all have some sort of stealth technology to keep people from being informed.  I am NOT looking forward to going through this mess as a parent.  I also appreciate the parents who are doing it right now and blazing the trail for the rest of us.

This thing is painful to the max, emotionally as well as in the sheer scope of all the stuff they want. It’s the caseworker who has to fill all this horse manure out and it really stinks.

Thank you for listening, even if it was not as helpful as other entries about IEPs.  Maybe I’ll come up with a better informed follow-up or perhaps some of you can help me out


Why Keep This Poor Girl From Graduating?

3 Jul

There’s a story out there about a New Jersey girl with Down syndrome who wants to graduate with her class.  Alicia Vitiello wants to walk with the rest of her cohort in 2007 but the local school board has a policy that a student can not walk across the stage until their program of study is complete.  The linked story is about how the White House has even weighed in on the side of Alicia.  The school board seems to be holding their ground at the moment, but I’m sure that once the USDOE gets involved and threatens them with a section 504 violation, they’ll cave in.


The issue is not IF Alicia graduates, it is WHEN.  Alicia is 17 and will presumably be 18 for graduation next year.  She will probably have enough credits to graduate.  So what is the issue?


The issue is that students in special education are eligible to be served by public education until they are 21.  Most special education students do not stay that long, however.  When their class graduates, they graduate and that’s it.  They go on to get jobs, go to college or be unemployed hoodlums like their regular peers.  But a select few who are in the moderate or severe intellectual range of functioning will stay in school until they age out and are more or less shoved out the door.  Is it so these students can gain more skills and better transition into adulthood?  Well, that is the the theory.  That is the reason for having a longer course of study.  But very few school districts have anything to offer a student beyond those first 4 years.  So basically they are going to get more of the same thing for 3-4 more years that they got during the first 4. 


What Alicia’s local school is trying to say is this: when you cross the stage and graduate, you are finished.  It’s the end of the line.  Graduation is the last and final step before leaving school.  But if Alicia’s parents have their way, that will not be the case.  Alicia will be back at school the next fall and for several subsequent years until she can’t come back anymore.


Is this a problem?  Probably not so much for Alicia, as her parents are well-to-do, influential and Alicia seems like a sweet girl.  She will do what they tell her to do.  The problem comes when you get a student who has graduated, who comes back and then we try to get him/her to work for us teachers.  Remember, they already have their diploma.  What incentive is there to perform?  Some kids do run into this, especially some moderate kids who have enough marbles to realize that they don’t have to if they don’t want to.  Graduation is a goal for some.  It is also an exercise that provides a sense of closure for parents, caregivers and teachers.  When Alicia finally leaves her school, she will not have that, because her chance was spent years before.


The articles states that Alicia should be given a chance to graduate with those she started kindergarten with instead of comparative strangers when she is 21.  But the fact is, if Alicia is not fully included, she probably doesn’t know that many of her classmates anyway.  It is also a myth that she would be graduating with strangers at age 21.  Fact is, while her cohort will be almost graduated from college by the time she finishes, she will be one of the best known students in the school as this year’s freshman know her and so will every subsequent year of new students.  Recall my earlier story of Graduation Day.  All of my graduates crossed the stage after they had gone the entire distance.  They were not coming back.


Our district in Magnolia County leaves it up to the parents to decide when they want their student to graduate.  And they generally choose to wait until they are 21 or finished.  However, next year Spaz is planning on crossing the stage a year early with his younger sister, and then coming back for one more year.  (Stay tuned for THAT one!LOL!) 


There are some good reasons for waiting:

– It gives us teachers more time to prepare a student for that big occasion.  We have a more mature student that can better tolerate all the silliness, boredom and waiting associated with a long ceremony.

– That last year is EXPENSIVE!  Taking a few years to save up for the pictures, the invitations, the prom, the limo, the graduation fees, the paraphanalia and stuff assocated with graduation can not be a bad thing. 

– Think more intently on transition.  Most post-school sheltered workshops won’t even take a student who is not 21.   It would be nice if high schools had something similar for the 18-21 crowd, but they don’t. 

-It provides closure for everyone involved.  Like my prior posts on the subject describes, it can be a bit like a funeral.  But closure really is needed.  And perhaps this is just my own personal bias coming through.


In theory, that 18-21 time period should be for post school planning and transition.  In fact, it is simply more time for the parent to procrastinate.  If Alicia were truly ready to graduate and get a job, this would not be an issue at all.  She’d graduate in May or June and be working by July or August.  But that is NOT the case, here.  Her parents want the school to carry her for several more years because they can.  I agree that the school should offer more, but they don’t.  If there is a better post-school environment, she should be in it. 


I get the school board’s position.  It sounds a bit cruel, but a person only graduates from high school once.  It should mean something.  It should mean that whole beginning/end thing the valedictorians and commencement speakers talk about.  Alicia is not really graduating because she will be coming back in the fall, unlike all those other folks who will have walked with her.  She will be more isolated and alone than ever, having already done all the graduation stuff.  There is no longer a ceremony to look forward to.


The school board WILL cave.  Alicia’s father is a leader in the township’s Republican Party and the white house is involved.  What do you think will happen?  Frankly, it isn’t worth fighting about.  Let those parents have their way.  The press paints a picture of a little girl with Down syndrome who just wants to graduate and makes it look like the school board is denying her rights and keeping her from her dream.  It’s a touching story and good for a headline or two.  But it is not wholly accurate. 


I’ve actually graduated a few of my students earlier than was necessary.  One of them had a job that I knew may not be there if I kept him his full 3 extra years, so we moved him along.  Most of the rest would be 21 but eligible for another year based on our county’s  “THROUGH 21 policy” which means the kid who turned 22 in August could have stuck around the whole year.  But I moved him through and graduated him at 21 anyway.  Why?  Because I needed more space for incoming kids and the parents were all simply procrastinating.  They needed the kick in the rear that NOT going back in the fall provided.  Another year would have done nothing for the student while enabling the parents’ poor behaviors. 


Frankly, after 7 years in our program, I’ve done as much as I can.  I need the closure of a graduation ceremony as much as the parents after investing so many years and so much effort with these kids.  Doing it 3 years prematurely is sort of a kick in the gut to me.  But if the parents insist, I’ll go along with it.  I may try to talk them out of it, but they have the final say.  I’m fine with honoring their wishes.  But when the last and final day of school finally comes for a post grad student (and it will eventually come), I’m going to be getting ready for someone’s graduation.  That student and their family will probably be getting ready for a waiting list.

 My Prior Posts on graduation:

Graduation Day Part 1

Graduation Day Part 2 



An Index for my IEP Series

31 May

I’m still getting hoards of hits on this, mostly from Liz, who has a partial index of her own. So here it is, building on what she started:

  1. IEP Preperation: School Staff
  2. IEP Preperation: Parents
  3. Present Level of Performance
  4. Behavior Intervention Plan
  5. Accomodations and Modifications
  6. Goals and Objectives
  7. Transition Plan and IHP
  8. Service Options and Placement
  9. ESY
  10. IEP Process: Functional Behavior Assessment
  11. Manifestation Determination Part 1
  12. Manifestation Determination Part 2

Hopefully this can make things easier for those of you searching for information. I’ve more or less organized this according to how I proceed at a typical IEP meeting. Just remember that your state or county may do things differently. In fact, it even varies within districts and across teachers. Also, look at the category under “IEPs” where I make additional comments on IEPs that I happen to conduct or attend. Many thanks to all of you for stopping by and reading. I hope this will be helpful to parents and teachers trying to figure out the whole IEP mess.

Pt. 2 of the graduation post is on it’s way.